Evolution of Card Suits

One of the fun things about exploring international card games is discovering different decks.  But how and why did the suits end up the way they are today?  Why does my replica 16th century German deck nothave the same suits the modern one does?  And what does hunting have to do with it?

Conveniently, smarter and more well-read people than I have done that research, so here’s a link!

History of Playing Cards

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Okay, I’m old…I was trying to figure out a Baba Looey joke for the title, but I doubt people would remember Quick-Draw McGraw’s burro sidekick.  

Anyway, this is about a Spanish card game that is a blend of trick-taking and card-shedding.  That is, the goal of the game is to get rid of all your cards, but the mechanic is similar to trick-taking games.  It’s a children’s game, which introduces the concept of following suit, and the titular B-U-R-R-O is how you track the five penalty points before ending the game.  The winner will be the player with the least letters spelling burro.

Up to 8 players can play, usually with a 48-card deck (which includes the 8 and 9 of each suit), although the more common 40-card deck can be used, as well. Cards are ranked King high down to Ace low.  Deal each player 4 cards, and set the rest aside as a draw pile.

The first player leads a card to a trick, and players must follow suit.  If they cannot, they must draw cards until they have a card of the led suit to play.  If the draw pile runs out, the player simply passes.  Tricks are won by the highest card of the led suit, and that player leads a card to the next trick.

Players who run out of cards drop out of play, and the last player holding cards receives a penalty point, one more letter toward spelling burro.  Once someone has spelled the complete word, the player with the least points wins the game.  If there is a tie, the tied players may play another hand to determine the winner.

Portuguese Variant

In Portugal, the 40-card deck is used, and gameplay is the same except that the deal is 5 cards, and players may continue to draw even after finding a card of the suit led.  In Burro Deitado, the stock is face-down as normal, but there is another game, Burro em Pé, in which the stock is divided in two piles, and they are balanced against each other in the shape of an A.  If a player knocks over the stock while drawing, they are required to pick up the entire pile.

You Da Man!

L’Ombre, from mid-17th century Spain, was the trick-taking game that introduced the idea of bidding.  Players of games like Spades and Bridge know of bidding as declaring the number of tricks you and your partner think you can take with your hand.  At the beginning, though, bidding was a declaration of how you, on your own, planned to win the hand with a majority of tricks.

L’Ombre (or Hombre) is a three-player game, using the 40-card Spanish deck.  In the 1657 description from The Compleat Gamester, he describes the card ranks using French suits – the writer was in England, and pared down a French (now standard) deck by removing the 8, 9, and 10 of each suit.  In my illustrations, I will be using a Spanish pack.  Conversion is straightforward – Sword became Spades, Batons were Clubs, Coins changed to Diamonds, and Cups are now Hearts.  First, an excerpt describing card ranks, and then an illustration to show what he means.

The Ranking of Cards

There are two suits, Black and Red; of the Black there is first the “Spadillo” or Ace of Spades; the “Mallillio” or black Deuce, the “Basto” or Ace of Clubs; the King, the Queen, the Knave, the seven, the fix, the five, four, and three. Of the Red Suit there is the Spadillo, punto, Mallillio, &c.

The Spadillo or Ace of Spades, is always the first Card, and always Trump, and the Basto or Ace of Clubs is always third; of the Black there is 11 Trumps, of the Red 12. The Red Ace enters into the fourth place when it is Trump and it is called Punto then, otherwise only called an Ace.

The least small Cards of the Red are always best, and the most of the Black; except the Deuce and Red Seven, which are called the Mallillio’s and always seāˆ£cond when Trump. The Matadors (or Killing Cards) which are the Spadillo, Mallillio, and Basto are the chief Cards, and when they are all in hand the Others pay for them three of the greater Counters apiece; and with these three for foundation you may count as many Matadors as you have Cards in an interrupted series of Trumps; for all which the others are to pay you one Kounter apiece.

Just roll with the spelling – at least the transcription I found converted f to s where appropriate – the scan read as “the leaft fmall Cardf,” for example.  In the first paragraph, he’s naming special card ranks that change depending on which suit is trump for the hand.  The second paragraph mentions Punto, which is a special rank for a red Ace only when a red suit is trump.

In the third paragraph, he describes the full ranking of the cards, seeming to contradict his earlier definitions, although he’s just including the other suits for the special positions.  He also mentions Counters, which represent the bets in the game.  A small counter is worth 1 bet, while a large one is worth 5.  We’ll get to the betting system in a bit.  Below are the card rankings for each suit, assuming they are trump.  When a suit is not trump, the card in the Mallillio or Punto positions are back in normal numerical order – note that the Ace of the red suits only counts as 1, so it’s next to the 2, not above the king.  Meanwhile, the Mallillio card is the lowest-ranked card in a suit when it is not trump.  A little weird, I know.

The Black Suits, from left to right: Spadillo, Mallillio, Basto, King, Knight, Knave, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3. When not either is not trump, their ranks go from King down to 2


The Red Suits, from left to right: Spadillo, Mallillio, Basto, Punto, King, Knight, Knave, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

Notice that no matter what suit is trump, the Ace of Swords is always the highest card, and the Ace of Batons is always third highest.  The Mallillio (second highest card) is held by the lowest-ranked card of the current trump suit, so a 2 when it is Swords or Batons, and a 7 when it is Coins or Cups.  The term Matadors refers to these three “super-trump” cards.

You may also have spotted that in the Coins and Cups suits, there is a partial reverse-ranking – that is, after the face cards, the Ace (1) is the highest rank, counting down to 7.  I’m not sure of the reason for this, but I’m sure I’ll dive down that rabbit hole in some future post.

The Deal

Just before the first deal, players put up one of the Greater Counters (worth 5) as the stakes.  If the stakes are empty at the beginning of a hand, each puts in another Great Counter.  Otherwise, the Player to the left of the dealer (the Eldest hand) adds in one Lesser Counter (worth 1) to begin the deal.

The players are each dealt 9 cards, and the remaining 13 are set aside to form what in some games is called a talon or cache.  They are effectively out of play, which makes figuring out what each player is holding more difficult.  Depending on the outcome of the bid, cards may be exchanged (“taken in”) with the talon, blindly from the top of the deck.

The Goal and Bidding

I’m blending these together, because it’s hard to bid on winning a game without knowing how to win in the first place.  Simply put, you want to take the most out of nine tricks if you win the bid.  This means at least 5 tricks won guarantees the game, and you can win with 4 if the other two players end up with a 3/2 split.  A tie with one or both opponents will have you doubling the bet in play, rather than paying out to either opponent.  I’ll explain more about how the payouts work when I detail the end-game results.

The bidding is very simple – the eldest hand has the right to bid game or pass, letting the second player make the same choice, followed by the third.  When you pass, you pay one Lesser Counter to the stakes.  If all three players pass without bidding game, the eldest hand automatically wins the bid.

To bid game allows you to choose the trump suit, and to have the first right of exchange with the talon. Simply discard any number of cards, and draw the same amount from the top of the deck.  Each card taken costs one Lesser Counter, again paid to the stakes.  If you look at the cards you have drawn before naming a trump suit, however, be aware that the other players now have the right to name a suit for you.

After the game player (the Hombre) has exchanged cards, the other two players have the option of doing so as well.  The Hombre can also choose not to exchange cards at all if he feels certain he can win at least 5 tricks, in which case each of the other two players immediately pays him one of the Greater Counters as a side bet.  If he fails in this declaration, he must return their Greater Counter, and pay another one to each of them, so the Hombre stands to gain or lose 10 bets on this gamble, where each of the other players may gain or lose 5 each.

In later games, such as Tresillo, you could outbid a player who already bid game, by declaring a more difficult win, such as a random trump, or not exchanging cards at all.  But in this first bidding game, you either bid to win or you pass.

The Play

The Compleat Gamester mixes recommended strategy and payouts with the gameplay rules in a way that is difficult to follow, so I will be summarizing how to play.  For the curious, though, here is an example:

When one hath a sure Game in his hand, he is to play without taking in, then the others are to give him each one of the great Counters as he is to give them, if he play without taking in a Game that is not sure and loseth it; if you win all the Tricks in your hand or the Voll, they likewise are to give you one Counter apiece, but then you are to declare before the fifth Trick that you intend to play for the Voll, that so they keep their best Cards, which else, seeing you win five Tricks (or the Game) they may carelessly cast away.

The Hombre leads a card to the first trick.  Players are required to follow suit.  There is no requirement to trump if you are out of the led suit, although of course, you may do so.  Leading trumps or Matadors forces other players to use any trumps in their hand, although the three Matador cards can only be forced out by the other Matadors.

After each player has laid down one card, the highest card of the led suit wins the trick, unless it was trumped, in which case the highest trump wins it.  The winner collects their trick and angles them out to keep track of tricks won before leading a card to the next trick.

If any player wins the first 5 tricks, whether they are Hombre or not, they can either collect one Lesser Counter from each other player immediately, or declare that they are playing for the Voll, that is, attempting to win all 9 tricks.  Success is worth an additional Greater Counter from each other player, in addition to the normal winnings.

Endgame and Payouts

After all nine tricks have been played, each player counts up how many tricks have been won, and make payouts based on three possible conditions:

  • Sacado: The Hombre succeeds in having more tricks than any other player.  He wins the stakes, plus one Lesser Counter from each opponent.
  • Codillo: The Hombre has fewer tricks than at least one other player.  The player with the most tricks wins the stakes, plus an equal amount from the Hombre
  • Repuesto: The Hombre is tied with one or both opponents.  He adds up the current total of the stakes and pays that amount in, doubling the initial stakes going into the next game.

In the case of either Sacado or Codillo, the stakes are empty going into the next hand which means each player will ante in one Greater Counter, as explained in the section on the deal.

Game Evolution – Tresillo

Given that I’ve mentioned it several times and it is the version played today, I will also detail rule changes which will allow you to play Tresillo.  It is virtually the same game, except for the counters, the possible bids, and the payout system.

In Tresillo, the counters are referred to as tantos.  Think of them as poker chips.  Each player had their own color, and there were three denominations – a square worth 1 tanto, a circle worth 5 tantos, and a rectangle worth 10 tantos.  Typically players would buy in to have 10 of each unit.  The different colors were so players could distinguish how much they each won or lost, and settle up after the game.

The game made use of two plates, one to hold a 5-tanto piece from each player at the beginning of the game, and one for the actual stakes of the current hand, which passes from dealer to dealer – this is referred to as the plato.  To begin a hand, the dealer first examines the plato.  

  • If it is empty, the dealer takes one of the 5-tanto pieces from the middle of the table, and adds a 1-tanto piece from their personal stockpile.
  • If the plato is not empty, the dealer adds only 1 tanto from their personal stock.

The deal and tricks are played the same, except players do not have to pay out for passing on the bid or exchanging cards.  There are, however, other possible bids, listed below from lowest to highest in rank.  The highest bid becomes the Hombre for the hand.  If there is a tie bid, the last player to give that bid is the Hombre.  Like poker, you can raise the bid as it goes around the table, until the other two players pass.

  • Juego (I play): choose the trump suit, then exchange cards with the talon.
  • Vuelta (turn): flip over the top card of the talon to determine the trump suit, then exchange cards.
  • Solo (alone): choose the trump suit, but exchange no cards

In all of these cases, the opponents may exchange cards with the talon after the Hombre either exchanges or chooses not to.  Typically, they negotiate so that the player with the stronger hand exchanges first.

At the end of the game, there are nine possible situations (the same three outcomes as in L’Ombre, as well as three different situations with the stakes.  Below, I’ll list them as an outline, which sadly looks more complicated than it is in actual play.

  1. First Puesta: The plato was empty before the deal, and there are no open debts
    1. Sacado: Hombre wins the contents of the plato, plus 1 tanto from each opponent
    2. Repuesto: Hombre pays the amount in play into the plato.  The amount in play is the contents of the plato, plus 4.
    3. Codillo: Hombre pays the amount in play into the plato and an equal amount to the winning opponent.  Again, the amount in play is the contents of the plato, plus 4.
  2. Puesta in the Plato: The plato contains an amount paid in by an unsuccessful Hombre.
    1. Sacado: Hombre wins the contents of the plato, plus 1 tanto from each opponent.
    2. Repuesto: Hombre writes the amount in play on the Reserved Puesta sheet under their name.  The amount in play is the contents of the plato, plus 4.
    3. Codillo: Hombre writes the amount in play on the Reserved Puesta sheet under their name, and pays an equal amount to the winning player.  The amount in play is the contents of the plato, plus 4.
  3. Reserved Puesta: There are debts recorded on the Reserved Puesta sheet.
    1. Sacado: Hombre wins the contents of the plato, plus the highest recorded debt from that player.  If the highest recorded debt was from the Hombre, they simply win the contents of the plato, and cross out that debt.
    2. Repuesto: Hombre writes the current amount in play on the Reserved Puesta sheet under their name.  The amount in play is the highest debt on the sheet, plus the contents of the plato.
    3. Codillo: Hombre writes the current amount in play on the Reserved Puesta sheet under their name.  They also pay an equal amount to the winning opponent.  The amount in play is the highest debt on the sheet, plus the contents of the plato.

There are some bonuses paid to a successful Hombre, as well.  These are paid by the opponents, or to both opponents if the Hombre was unsuccessful in these special bids:

  • Vuelta: 1 tanto extra
  • Solo: 2 tantos extra
  • Estuche: Has all 3 Matadors and wins – 1 tanto extra
  • Primeras: Wins first 5 tricks and does not play the rest – 1 tanto extra
  • Bola (or Voll): Wins all 9 tricks – 8 tantos extra

Closing Thoughts

Between a deck with unfamiliar suits, Spanish game terms, super trumps, reverse card ranking, special rank for the lowest card of the trump suit, two against one gameplay, and the payout system, L’Ombre can seem daunting on the first read-through.  I felt the same way when I initially found Tresillo, which borrows much of the gameplay and adds another layer of complexity to both the bidding and payout system.

I had learned Tresillo first, and though it was fascinating to me, as a lover of trick-taking games, it was complicated enough to explain to a casual player that it was easier to just teach a faster game from the time of El Camino Real, which was the initial inspiration to research these games.  Fortunately, because of those borrowed concepts, when I was slogging through the rules as interpreted by an Englishman writing them up for a compilation, it helped me considerably to fill in the blanks, or follow the rambling strategic suggestions to write up the rules as simply as I could.

It just lends credence to my belief that the broader the range of games you have learned or played, the easier it is to learn unfamiliar ones, as you will recognize concepts and mechanics that carried over as the games themselves evolved.

With that in mind, enjoy the game.  Keep gaming, and keep learning.

 

 

Trick or Treat!

I felt like doing a theme this month, so all my game posts are going to be about trick-taking card games, and their evolution through history.  Trick-taking games are actually my favorite, because they require a skill in making the most of the hand dealt to you, as well as getting a rough idea what other player’s hold.  You must manipulate the other players to lay down cards advantageous to you, while playing cards with as little value as possible when you cannot take the hand.  There are many distinct classifications of trick-taking games, but in broad terms, they boil down to two basic groups:

  • Plain Trick-Taking: What matters is how many hands (tricks) you capture.  Spades is a well-known example, as is Contract Bridge.  Bidding is usually for the number of tricks, and may or may not involve trump suits, partnerships, or a requirement to follow a led suit.
  • Point-Trick-Taking: In this group, individual cards have different values, and the goal is to win a certain number of points, or to capture particular cards.  Hearts could be considered to fall into this group, with each heart being worth negative points.

There are other games with a mechanic that is similar to trick-taking, such as Big Two, which has players trying to beat a led combination of cards by laying down the same combination with higher ranks – the hand may continue around the table more than once, until someone cannot or will not match the combination.  On rules sites such as Pagat.com, these are considered quasi-trick-taking games, as the goal is usually to accumulate or get rid of cards, rather than specifically capture tricks.

Early trick-taking games were simply about capturing tricks, and didn’t require following suit, as is taken for granted today.  Each hand was usually won by whomever played the highest card of the led suit.  Given the simplistic play, it looks like these early games were of minimal interest to historians or game collectors, as I could not find any specific named games.

The earliest game to introduce the idea of cards with greater power than the others was Karnöffel, first mentioned in 1426. In this game, a card is dealt face-up to select a suit, in which the Jack, six, and deuce have special ranks. Interestingly, the objection to this game by the gentry had more to do with the lower-ranked cards having power over the “royalty” than the usual complaints about gambling.

Near the same time, close enough that we don’t know which influenced the other, if at all, the point trick-taking game Trionfi was introduced in Italy, later renamed Tarocco.  This was the Tarot deck, which added a 21-card fifth suit specifically to be able to beat all other suits in tricks.  In French, it translated as Triomphe, in German, Trumpf, and in English, Trump.  The French were enamored of the game, and spread it throughout the rest of Europe.

Pretty much all card games that use a trump suit were influenced by the idea introduced by the Italian Tarot deck in the mid-1400s.  Use as a divination tool didn’t occur until around 1780, when some French scholars saw the Italian-suited cards (still using swords, cups, coins, and batons), and interpreted the symbols as being hieroglyphs, creating occult meaning where none existed.

In the 17th century, Spain introduced a game called L’Ombre, a plain trick-taking game that was the first to incorporate bidding.  The game was immensely popular and spread throughout Europe, mainly the Renegado variant.  When I originally heard of it from Pagat, it was from the page about Tresillo, which is a variant still played in Spain today.  Since I was looking specifically for Spanish games to demonstrate on El Camino Real, it made sense to use Tresillo, since the rules for L’Ombre were supposed to be lost.  Fortunately, I recently found a scan of The Compleat Gamester from 1657, so I’ll be plodding through the rules to write about it in my next post.

Now, bidding wasn’t originally specifying a number of tricks – it was betting whether you could win the game with or without choosing trumps or using extra cards that were set aside during the deal.  The most challenging way to capture a majority of tricks would win the bid, and the other players would cooperatively try to prevent the winner of the bid from achieving their goal.  This was a three player game.  If a fourth player was participating, they would sort of rotate into the game, with one player sitting out each hand.

Meanwhile, in England, a game called Ruff and Honors was evolving into Whist, which is a bit more recognizable to modern card players, as it was widely played in the 18th and 19th centuries.  Whist is a plain trick-taking game in which trumps is determined randomly, and partners score the number of tricks above 6, as well as for holding the Honors (the Ace and face cards of the trump suit).  From there, the idea of bidding based on how many tricks you think you can take was an inevitability.

Stay tuned, readers….next time, I try interpreting a rambling explanation of game rules from the tail end of the Renaissance.

More Fun than War? Burglary!

I remember many afternoons killing time with my younger brother by shuffling up a deck of cards, dealing it all out between us, and playing War.  It was an easy game to play – put out a card each, high number wins.  If they’re equal, deal 3 face down, and one more faceup – high number wins it all.  Still equal?  Another three face down plus one faceup, lather, rinse, repeat.  All the cards you win go on the bottom of your deck.  First player with all the cards wins.

It seems fun at that age, a game of chance, but unfortunately, the game is determined completely by the shuffle.  There are no decisions to be made during play.  And without choice, you have no real stake in the outcome.

So, as an alternative game with a similar feel, allow me to present Casita Robada (“Stealing Bundles”), from Argentina.  In Italy, this game is called Rubamazzo.  English-speaking countries call it Steal the Old Man’s Bundle, or Stealing Piles.  As you might guess, stealing what your opponent has won is part of this game.

Casita Robada is from the family of card games known as fishing games.  Oddly enough, I don’t think Go Fish falls in this family.  Fishing games have a selection of cards on the table, which you capture in some fashion with a card from your hand, sometimes with math, but usually by matching.  Most fishing games are won by having the most captured cards after one run through the deck, but obviously, it varies from game to game.

You can play this game with 2-4 players, and with pretty much any card deck, though I initially discovered it while researching games to play with the Spanish pack.  Deal 4 cards to each player, and then 4 more cards faceup in the middle of the table.

On your turn, play a card from your hand faceup into the cards in the middle.  If you match ranks with any of the cards there, you capture them.  Take your card and all matching cards, and put them in a faceup pile in front of you, only the top card showing.  If you didn’t match anything, your card stays in the middle.  In either case play then passes to the next player.  After each player has used their 4 cards, deal them each 4 more (but not to the middle), and play continues.

“Okay, but where’s the stealing?  You promised me looting,” you may be saying.  Here’s where having that faceup pile of captured cards matters.  If the card you play matches the top card of someone’s pile, then instead of taking cards from the middle, you capture that player’s entire pile.  Take your card and their stack, and place it on top of your own pile.

In this example, I can play the 10 to the table, capturing nothing. Or, play the 6 and capture the 6 from the table, and put them both on top of my pile. Finally, if I play the 5, I capture my opponent’s entire pile and put it on top of my own.

 

Once all cards have been played, any remaining cards in the center go to the last player who made a match.  Players then count up their stacks, and whoever has the most cards wins.

Playable Apps

Rubamazzo for iOS

Rubamazzo for Android

Conquian – the First Rummy in the West

It is generally accepted that rummy-type (draw, meld, discard, try to go out) games originated in China (don’t worry, I’ll get to mahjong eventually).  I’ve played many different variants on the idea, and when I was researching card games played during the heyday of El Camino Real, I was pleased to discover that the very first rummy-style game in the west came from Latin America.  The best guess is Mexico during the 1860’s, but even as of the roaring 20s, game rule collectors weren’t sure.  Here’s an excerpt from Foster’s Complete Hoyle, in its third publication in 1922.

The etymology of this word is Spanish, con quién, “with whom”, but of the game it stands for, little or nothing is known except that it is a great favorite in Mexico, and in all the American States bordering upon it, especially Texas. It is an excellent game for two players, quite different from any other in its principles, and requiring very close attention and a good memory to play it well. In its finer points, especially in the judgment of what the adversary holds or is playing for, it ranks with our best games, and will probably grow in popularity as it becomes better known.

The game is played with the 40-card Spanish deck, of course.  Remember again that the 10 (sota, or jack) comes immediately after the 7 in sequence.  For play with a standard international deck, you can either remove the 8, 9, and 10 from each suit, or the three face cards to have a continuous run from Ace through 10.  In this game, the Ace is low, and the King is high.  When played with stakes, each game is worth one bet, and if it is a tie, another bet is added and a new hand played until someone wins.

Since it is my oldest source, I will be pulling the rules from Foster’s Hoyle.  Modern sources or apps may vary slightly in the number of cards dealt, but the rest of the gameplay remains the same.

The goal of the game is to be the first to meld 11 cards.  A meld is either 3 or 4 cards of the same rank (the 3 of cups, swords, and coins, for example), or at least 3 numbers in sequence within the same suit (such as the 7, 10, and 11 of batons).  In common card-playing jargon, cards of the same rank are a set, while cards in sequence within a suit are a run.

Traditionally, both players are dealt 10 cards, two at a time, and the remainder of the deck is placed in the center as a draw pile.  Play begins with the non-dealer.  The first player turns over the top card of the deck, and checks whether they can form a meld with anything in their hand.  If so, they lay down the cards to meld before adding the revealed card from the deck.  This is important, since so many other games work differently.  A player never draws a card into their hand for this game.  The first player now has a choice:

  1. Play at least two cards from their hand to form a valid meld (set of 3 or 4, run of 3 or more cards in suit) with the face-up card from the deck – you cannot lay down a meld without using the card from the deck. Afterward, they discard 1 card from their hand, ending their turn.
  2. Reject the card, ending their turn.

After this decision has been made, the second player has a slightly different choice:

  1. Play a meld using at least two cards from their hand with the discarded/rejected card from the previous player’s turn.  Afterward, discard a card from their hand, ending their turn.
  2. Reject the card left by the last player.  Turn this card face-down to form a waste pile.  The waste pile cards are out of the game and will not come up again.  Then, reveal the next card from the top of the deck and either meld it, or reject it, which ends their turn and passes this new card to the other player.

Player 1 rejected the revealed card. Player 2 could reject the 4, but then could not meld the 1-2-3 of swords alone. They can meld 2-3-4 or 1-2-3-4 of swords.

Play continues like this, with an old card to either use or reject.  If rejected, it is discarded permanently, and a new card is revealed to be decided on before passing play again.  After you have melds on the table, you may add the revealed card to your existing melds by itself or with a card from your hand.  Again, you may not meld to anything from your hand without using the card from the deck.

After any meld, you discard 1 card from your hand to pass to your opponent. If your discard causes you to be out of cards, the game is not over until you have eleven cards melded in front of you – you just have to hope for a lucky rejection or draw to win.  If you run out of cards in the draw pile, the game is a tie and you play again.

Seems simple so far, right?  There are just a couple little wrinkles left: Borrowing, and Forcing.

Borrowing is about using cards from a meld of 4 or more cards to form a new meld with the card in play from the deck.  You can pull one card from a set of 4 of a kind, or from either end of a run.  No meld can have fewer than 3 cards after any borrowing is complete.

Forcing is when you make your opponent use a card to add onto one of their existing melds (the 4th card to a set, or to extend a run from either end).  It can be done in only two situations:

  1. They reject your discard or drawn card, and turn over a new one that can be used on their visible melds
  2. After you have melded, as it is the only time you would discard.
Conquian_Forced_Play.jpg

An example of a forced play. The player rejected the 3 of coins at the beginning of their turn, revealing the 5 of swords. Because they have a visible meld that can use the 5, their opponent forces them to do so, making them break up one of the pairs in hand.

 

To force a card, simply pick it up once revealed or you discard, and play it on their meld, telling them to discard, instead of melding normally.  This is a technique to disrupt a potential meld in their hand, making it more difficult to finish melding their full 11 cards.

Player 2 is now in a bit of a pickle. They have laid down 10 cards and have none in hand, meaning they must be able to use the card from the deck in order to win the game. They can only add the 10 of swords or the 7 of cups to their runs. The 10-swords is melded by the other player, and what Player 2 doesn’t know is that the 7-cups os in Player 1’s hand. Unless they discard it, Player 2 cannot win.

 

It is interesting to see elements that were used by so many later rummy games.  The rearranging of melds is especially interesting to me, since the first place I encountered it was in Rummikub, which despite just being plastic tiles representing cards, is considered more of a board game.  I have also seen rules stating the initial deal as 8 or 9 cards, again only requiring melding 1 more card than the number dealt.  In this, I prefer the challenge of the original deal of 10.  Because there are only 10 cards in each suit, this prevents you from winning with only a very long run.

The game can feel more slow than other rummy games, because of the reject/new card/can’t use/reject mechanic.  In other games, you can pick up the discard to try and improve your initial deal, which is not the case here.  It adds a greater challenge to do the best you can with your deal, but it can be frustrating to realize you cannot possibly go out and have to go through the motions of rejecting cards until you finish the deck to tie the game and redeal.

In the example game above, this is exactly what happened.  Player 1 only had sets, and the 4th card of each was melded by Player 2.  Because they had no other pairs in their hand, and no two cards of the same suit that were close enough for a potential run, they could not meld or discard for the rest of the game.  Meanwhile, Player 2 could only win with the 7 of cups, which was in Player 1’s hand and could not be discarded.  So, back and forth, they ended up rejecting the last 10 cards in the deck one by one.  I think when you’re drinking and gambling and not playing very close attention, this wouldn’t be a problem, but for someone used to the light card-counting that helps in trick-taking games, it is frustrating to know the game will be a tie, but to waste time getting to the redeal.

It is a minor quibble, though, and if you can let that go, Conquian is an enjoyable and challenging game, worthy of being the parent to a wide variety of rummy-type games in the west.

Playable Apps

Conquian for iOS (uses the 8 card deal/9 cards melded to win rules)

Conquian for Android